The International Arab Journal of Information Technology (IAJIT)


Unified Inter-Letter Steganographic Algorithm, A Text-based Data Hiding Method

This paper funds a novel text-based steganographic algorithm with enhanced functionality with respect to the previously proposed methods, by careful selection of one of standard space characters, the introduced Inter-Letter Steganographic Method, or Visual and Reverse Extraction attacks, two additional modes of operation have been added to the original InLetSteg algorithm and have been merged into a single one, called as Unified Inter-Letter Steganographic Method, or UILS. The Unified Inter-Letter Steganographic Method (UILS) embeds the data using variable step-size into the host text and the developed mathematical model can calculate the approximate length of the host text required to embed certain data, statistically. In addition, the general mathematical model of UILS makes it customizable to adapt the real-world applications. The statistical parameters that are used through this work are calculated for English host text, but are easily calculable for other languages with similar alphabets and structure of notations. Finally, the programmatically deployed UILS outputs are experimentally examined using 60 attendant and the results are discussed.

[1] Bailer W., “WbStego Steganography Tool”

[web site], http://wbs-, wbStego4open overview, Last Visited, 2018.

[2] Bender W., Gruhl D., Morimoto N., and Lu A., “Techniques for Data Hiding,” IBM Systems Journal, vol. 35, pp. 313-336, 1996.

[3] Culnane C., Treharne H., and Ho A., “A New Multi-Set Modulation Technique for Increasing Hiding Capacity of Binary Watermark for Print and Scan Processes,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Digital Watermarking, Germany, pp. 96-110, 2006.

[4] Hamad N., “Hiding Text Information in a Digital Image Based on Entropy Function,” The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 146-151, 2010.

[5] Hernandez-Castro J., Blasco-Lopez I., Estevez- Tapiador J., and Ribagorda-Garnacho A., “Steganography in Games: A General Methodology and its Application to the Game of Go,” Computers and Security, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 64-71, 2006.

[6] Herodotus, the Histories, J. M. Dent and Sons Ltd., 1992.

[7] Hossain M., Al Haque S., and Sharmin F., “Variable Rate Steganography in Gray Scale Digital Images Using Neighborhood Pixel Information,” The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 34-38, 2010. (10)    ),( )1( cMa xa ve AUILSsss mCD 838 The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 17, No. 6, November 2020

[8] Katzenbeisser S., Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking, Artech House, 1999.

[9] Kessler G., “An Overview of Steganography for the Computer Forensics Examiner,” Forensic Science Communications, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1-27, 2004.

[10] Kwan M., “The SNOW Home Page,” http://www.darksi-, Last Visited, 2018.

[11] Murphy B., “Syntactic Information Hiding in Plain Text,” Master Thesis, Trinity College, 2011.

[12] Pierce J., “An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise,” Dover Publications, pp. 75, 1961.

[13] Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS: Intensifying Our Efforts to Eliminate HIV and AIDS, United Nations, A/RES/65/277, Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, USA, 2011.

[14] Por L., Ang T., and Yin D., “WhiteSteg: A New Scheme in Information Hiding Using Text Steganography,” WSEAS Transactions on Computers, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 735-745, 2008.

[15] Por L. and Delina B., “Information Hiding: A New Approach in Text Steganography,” in Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Applied Computer and Applied Computational Science, Hangzhou, pp. 689-695, 2008.

[16] Por L., Wong K., and Chee K., “UniSpaCh: A Text-Based Data Hiding Method Using Unicode Space Characters,” The Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 1075-1082, 2012.

[17] Rahman M., Khalil I., Yi X., and Dong H., “Highly Imperceptible and Reversible Text Steganography Using Invisible Character based Codeword,” in Proceedings of the Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS Proceedings, 21st Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, Langkawi, pp. 1-13, 2017.

[18] Reddy H. and Raja K., “Wavelet based Non LSB Steganography,” International Journal of Advanced Networking and Applications, vol. 03, no. 3, pp. 1203-1209, 2011.

[19] Schuman M., “Spain’s Death Spiral and the Hypocrisy of the Euro,” Times Business, vol. 179, no. 15, 2012.

[20] Tacticus A., Aineias the Tactician: How to Survive under Siege, Clarendon Press, 1990.

[21] Tasheva A., Tasheva Z., and Nakov P., “Image Based Steganography Using Modified LSB Insertion Method with Contrast Stretching,” in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer Systems and Technologies, New York, pp. 233-240, 2017.

[22] Tolstoy L., War and Peace, A Penn State Electronic Classics Series Publication, Pennsylvania State University, 1805.

[23] Topkara M., Topkara U., and Atallah M., “Words are Not Enough: Sentence Level Natural Language Watermarking,” in Proceedings of ACM Workshop on Content Protection and Security, Santa Barbara, pp. 37-46, 2006.

[24] Unicode Standard version 6.1, General Punctuation, Supplement Punctuation, Range 2E00-2E7F, Unicode Inc. Press, USA, 2011. Ahmad Esmaeilkhah was born in June, 1981. He received his B.Sc. in 2007, M.Sc. in 2013 in electrical engineering and his Ph.D. in 2019 in Telecommunication Engineering. He is now with University of Urmia. The main areas of his interest are Antenna, Scaling of Electromagnetic Structures, Radar and Steganography. Changiz Ghobadi was born in June, 1960 in Iran. He received his B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering Electronics and M.Sc. degrees in Electrical Engineering Telecommunication from Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran and Ph.D. degree in Electrical- Telecommunication from University of Bath, Bath, UK in 1998. Now he is a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering of Urmia University, Urmia, Iran. Javad Nourinia received his B.Sc. in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from Shiraz University, M.Sc. degree in Electrical and Telecommunication Engineering from Iran University of Science and Technology, and Ph.D. degree in Electrical and Telecommunication from University of Science and Technology, Tehran Iran in 2000. Now he is a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering of Urmia University, Urmia, Iran. Maryam Majidzadeh was born in 1987 in Urmia, Iran. She received her B.Sc., in electrical engineering from Urmia University in 2009. As well, she received her M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in communication engineering from the same university in 2012, and 2016 respectively. She is now assistant professor in Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Urmia Girls Faculty, West Azerbaijan branch, Technical and Vocational University (TVU), Urmia, Iran.