The International Arab Journal of Information Technology (IAJIT)


An Enhanced Mechanism for Image Steganography Using Sequential Colour Cycle Algorithm

 Several  problems  arise  among  the  existing  LSB-based   image  steganographic  schemes  due  to  distortion  in a  stego- image  and  limited  payload  capacity.  Thus,  a  propose d  scheme  has  been  developed  with  the  aims  to  help  i n  improving  the  payload of the secret data at the same time retaini ng the quality of the stego-image produced within a n acceptance threshold.  This  study  has  led  to  the  modification  of  the  curre nt  LSB  substitution  algorithm  by  delivering  a  new  a lgorithm  namely  sequential  colour  cycle.  For  achieving  a  higher  sec urity,  multi-layered  steganography  can  be  performed   by  embedding  a  secret data into multiple layers of cover-images. T he performance evaluation has been tested and prove n that the improvement  of  embedding  ratio  at  1:2  for  the  proposed  algorith m  can  be  achieved  and  the  value  of  the  image  qualit y  is  not  falling  below  the threshold of distortion.   

[1] Al-Ataby A. and Al-Naima F Capacity Image Steganography Technique Based The International Arab Journal of Information Techn ology, Vol. 10, No. 1, January 2013 riginal image and a stego-image using mage. Original Image Stego-Image and Future Work lgorithm using sequential colour cycle is proposed to optimise the current LSB mechanism by utilising and integrating stego one LS B to stego four LSBs and also stego colour cycle LSB. As a result, the proposed scheme is able to encode up e each of the RGB pixels according to the contents of the secret data without visually The proposed scheme contributes a multi-layered embedding feature that enable senders to encode secret data into several cover-images sequentially to create a stealth camouflage to avoid intruder's unwanted attention. Another advantage is the on of bit substitution using sequential lgorithm to ensure the capacity of stego- images remain unchanged despite having multiple layers of encoding and decoding embedded. The proposed scheme also contributes to the flexibility in n of any secret data file types as long as the size of secret data is approximately 50% of the cover- image size. Having reviewed comparison with related work, the contributions mentioned in the proposed scheme is proven to outperform most of the current based tools. In a nutshell, the proposed scheme has achieved its envisioned objectives by developing a novel prototype to increase embedding ratio as well as alleviate problems of images production and restrictions Future work will focus on diversifying the various medium and to increase the capacity of payload using other alternative methods such We strive to explore and discover rs in the selection of cover mediums as well as ways to embed more secret data. Besides, we would also like to focus on the integration of information hiding method and authentication Naima F., A Modified High Capacity Image Steganography Technique Based An Enhanced Mechanism for Image Steganography Using Sequential Colour Cycle Algorithm 59 on Wavelet Transform, The International Arab Journal of Information Technology , vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 358-364, 2010.

[2] Bailey K. and Curran K., An Evaluation of Image Based Steganography Methods Using Visual Inspection and Automated Detection Techniques, Multimedia Tools and Applications , vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 55-88, 2006.

[3] BMP Format, available at: http://atlc.sourceforge. net/bmp.html, last visited 2009.

[4] BMP Windows Header Format, available at: mat.html, last visited 2009.

[5] Chao R., Wu H., Lee C., and Chu Y., A Novel Image Data Hiding Scheme with Diamond Encoding, EURASIP Journal on Information Security , vol. 2009, pp. 1-9, 2009.

[6] Cheddad A., Condell J., Curran K., and Mckevitt P., Biometric Inspired Digital Image Steganography, in Proceedings of 15 th Annual IEEE International Conference and Workshop on the Engineering of Computer Based Systems , Belfast, pp. 159-168, 2008.

[7] EasyBMP C++ Bitmap Library, available at: ml, last visited 2009.

[8] Graphics File Formats, available at:, last visited 2009.

[9] JAR File Specification, available at: http:// ntro, last visited 2009.

[10] Johnson N. and Jajodia S., Exploring Steganography: Seeing the Unseen, IEEE Computer Society , vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 26-34, 1998.

[11] Katzenbeisser S. and Petitcolas P., Information Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking , Artech House, London, 2000.

[12] Kipper G., Investigator's Guide to Steganography , Auerbach Publications, 2004.

[13] Lee C., Chang C., and Wang K., An Improvement of EMD Embedding Method for Large Payloads by Pixel Segmentation Strategy, Image and Vision Computing , vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 1670-1676, 2008.

[14] Lie W. and Chang L., Data Hiding in Images with Adaptive Numbers of Least Significant Bits Based on the Human Visual System, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing , Japan, vol. 1, pp. 286-290, 1999.

[15] Magic Number Definition, available at: http://, last visited 2009.

[16] Memon N. and Rodila R., Transcoding GIF Images to JPEG-LS, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics , vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 423- 429, 1997.

[17] Microsoft Windows Bitmap File Format Summary, available at: http://www.fileformat. info/format/bmp/egff.htm, last visited 2009.

[18] Mittal A., Low Power Motion Estimation Architecture for MPEG-4 AVC, Master Thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2006.

[19] Morkel T., Eloff J., and Olivier M., An Overview of Image Steganography, in Proceedings of the 5 th Annual Information Security South Africa Conference , South Africa, pp. 1-11, 2005.

[20] Neeta D. and Snehal K., Implementation of LSB Steganography and Its Evaluation for Various Bits, in Proceedings of 1 st International Conference on Digital Information Management , Bangalore, pp. 173-178, 2006.

[21] Oracle, Sun Developer Network, available at: q.html, last visited 2009.

[22] OS/2 Bitmap, available at: http://netghost., last visited 2009.

[23] Philip H., Library: Angif

[Internet] 1999, available at:, last visit ed 2009.

[24] Ponomarenko N., Lukin V., Egiazarian K., and Astola J., DCT Based High Quality Image Compression, in Proceedings of 14 th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis , Finland, pp. 1177-1185, 2005.

[25] Por L., Lai W., Alireza A., Ang T., Su M., and Delina B., StegCure: A Comprehensive Steganographic Tool Using Enhanced LSB Scheme, Journal of WSEAS Transactions on Computers , vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1309-1318, 2008.

[26] Rahman S. and Syed M., Multimedia Technologies: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications Book Description , Information Science Publishing, 2007.

[27] Sandipan D., Ajith A., and Sugata S., An LSB Data Hiding Technique Using Prime Numbers, in Proceedings of the 3 rd International Symposium on Information Assurance and Security , Manchester, pp. 101-106, 2007.

[28] Shajeemohan S., Govindan K., and Vijilin B., A Scheme for Image Classification and Adaptive Mother Wavelet Selection, in Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communications , Surathkal, pp. 308-313, 2006.

[29] Structure of BMP File, available at: an3/zad_vga_struktura_pliku_bmp_en.html, last visited 2009.

[30] Torres-Maya S., Nakano-Miyatake M., and Perez-meana H., An Image Steganography 60 The International Arab Journal of Information Te chnology, Vol. 10, No. 1, January 2013 Systems Based on BPCS and IWT, in Proceedings of 16th International Conference Electronics Communications and Computers , USA, pp. 51-51, 2006.

[31] Yee P-L., and Kiah M-L-M., Shoulder Surfing Resistance Using Penup Event and Neighbouring Connectivity Manipulation, Malaysian Journal of Computer Science , vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 121-140, 2010.

[32] Por L-Y, 2013, Frequency of Occurrence Analysis Attack and Its Countermeasure, The International Arab Journal of Information Technology , Advance online publication , available at: PDF/, vol.10, no.1/4143-7.pdf, vol. 10, no.2, Last Visited 2012.

[33] Por L-Y., Wong K-S., and Chee K-O., UniSpaCh: A Textbased Data Hiding Method Using Unicode Space Characters. Journal of Systems and Software , vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 1075- 1082, 2012. Lip Yee Por is a senior lecturer for the Department of System and Computer Technology in the Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology at University of Malaya. He received his PhD, BSc and MSc in computer science at University of Malaya, Malaysia. His curr ent research interests include information security, steganography, image processing, graphical authentication, grid computing, and e-learning framework. He is a senior member of IEEE since 2011 . His biography has been included in Marquis Who's Who in the World. Delina Beh received her BSc degree in Information Technology and MSc in Computer Science in 2008 and 2010 at University of Malaya, Malaysia. She is a lecturer in Malaysian Institute of Information Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur since 2010. Her research area includes information hiding, cryptography, biometric authentication, mobile security and USB security. Tan Fong Ang obtained his PhD from University of Malaya in 2012. He is currently a senior lecturer in the Department of Computer system and Technology, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Malaysia. He is a Member of IEEE. His research area s include Web Services, cloud computing and game education. Sim Ying Ong received her BSc in computer science in software engineering at University of Malaya, Malaysia. She is currently pursuing her PhD at University of Malaya, Malaysia.