The International Arab Journal of Information Technology (IAJIT)


Using Visible and Invisible Watermarking Algorithms for Indexing Medical Images

Watermarking of medical images greatly helps to provide authentication for safe storage and transmission of image databases. Though proper methodologies for indexing the medical images would provide faster retrieval performance, the problems have not been greatly addressed in the literature. This paper presents a review on image watermarking algorithms for indexing medical images. We have attempted at embedding and extraction of both visible and invisible watermarking algorithms over a set of 23 patient’s lung images. Results obtained establish the need for watermarking algorithms which show enhanced embedding as well as extraction performance for meeting the medical image indexation requirements.

[1] Amirgholipour S. and Sharifi A., A Pre-Filtering Method to Improve Watermark Detection Rate in DCT Based Watermarking, The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 178-185, 2014.

[2] Bouslimi D., Coatrieux G., Cozic M., and Roux C., A Joint Encryption/Watermarking System for Verifying the Reliability of Medical Images, IEEE Transaction on Information Technology in Biomedicine, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 891-899, 2012.

[3] Coatrieux G., Guillou C., Cauvin J., and Roux C., Reversible Watermarking for Knowledge Digest Embedding and Reliability Control in Medical Images, IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 158-165, 2009.

[4] Hajizadeh M., Helfroush M., Dehghani M., and Tashk A., A Robust Blind Image Watermarking Method Using Local Maximum Amplitude Wavelet Coefficient Quantization, Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 96-101, 2010.

[5] Kobayashi L., Furuie S., and Barreto P., Providing Integrity and Authenticity in DICOM Images: A Novel Approach, IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 582-589, 2009.

[6] Lagzian S., Soryani M., and Fathy M., A New Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on RDWT-SVD, International Journal of Intelligent Information Processing, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 22-29, 2011.

[7] Lestriandoko N. and Nuryani., Irreversible Watermarking Using Difference of Border Line for Digital Image Protection, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Distributed Frameworks for Multimedia Applications, Indonesia, pp. 249-254, 2010.

[8] Li M., Xiao D., Peng Z., and Nan H., A Modified Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images Using Random Diffusion and Accurate Prediction, ETRI Journal, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 325-328, 2014.

[9] Lim S., Moon H., Chae S., Pan S., Chung Y., and Chang M., Dual Watermarking Method for Integrity of Medical Images, in Proceedings of the IEEE 2nd International Conference on Future Generation Communication and Networking, Hainan Island, pp. 70-73, 2008.

[10] Mohanty S., Ramakrishnan K., and Kankanhalli M., A DCT Domain Visible Watermarking Technique for Images, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, New York, pp. 1029-1032, 2000.

[11] Naskar R. and Chakraborty R., Reversible Watermarking Utilising Weighted Median- Based Prediction, IET Image Processing, vol. 6, no. 5 pp. 507-520, 2012.

[12] Ni Z., Shi Y., Ansari N., Su W., Sun Q., and Lin X., Robust Lossless Image Data Hiding Designed for Semi-Fragile Image Authentication, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 497-509, 2008.

[13] Singh A., Kumar B., Dave M., and Mohan A., Multiple Watermarking on Medical Images Using Selective Discrete Wavelet Transform Coefficients, Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 607-614, 2015.

[14] Sukanesh R. and Karthikeyan N., High Payload Reversible Watermarking for Securing Medical Images in a Cloud Environment, in Proceedings of Springer India on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering Systems, New Delhi, pp. 17-24, 2015.

[15] Tiwari N., Ramaiya M., and Sharma M., Digital Watermarking Using DWT and DES, in Proceedings of the IEEE 3rd International Conference on Advance Computing, Ghaziabad, pp. 1100-1102, 2013.

[16] Vargas L. and Vera E., An Implementation of Reversible Watermarking for Still Using Visible and Invisible Watermarking Algorithms for Indexing Medical Images 755 Images, IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 54-59, 2013.

[17] Verma A. and Tapaswi S., A Novel Reversible Visible Watermarking Technique for Images Using Noise Sensitive Region Based Watermark Embedding (NSRBWE) Approach, in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on EUROCON, St.-Petersburg, pp. 1374-1377, 2009.

[18] Viswanathan P. and Krishna P., A Joint FED Watermarking System Using Spatial Fusion for Verifying the Security Issues of Teleradiology, IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 753-764, 2013.

[19] Wakatani A., Digital Watermarking for ROI Medical Images by Using Compressed Signature Image, in Proceedings of the IEEE 35th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Big Island, pp. 2043-2048, 2002.

[20] Wenyin Z. and Shih F., Semi-Fragile Spatial Watermarking Based on Local Binary Pattern Operators, Optics Communications, vol. 284, no. 16-17, pp. 3904-3912, 2011.

[21] Xuan G., Chen J., Zhu J., Shi Y., Ni Z., and Su W., Lossless Data Hiding Based on Integer Wavelet Transform, in Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, VI, pp. 312-315, 2002.

[22] Xuehua J., Digital Watermarking and its Application in Image Copyright Protection, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation, Changsha, pp. 114- 117, 2010. Jasmine Selvakumari (Corresponding Author) is pursuing her research under Anna University, Tamil Nadu, India. She received her B.E in Computer Science and Engineering from Manonmaniam Sundaranar University in 2001 and M.E in Computer Science and Engineering from Karunya University in 2007. She is having more than 12 years of teaching experience. Currently she is serving as an Assistant Professor in Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Hindusthan College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. She has published more than 11 papers in international journals in the field of data mining and information security. Her research area includes medical information security, database security and image processing. She is a life member of Institution of Engineers and Computer Society of India. She has received the Active Participation Woman Member Award in 2014 and Largest Continuous SBC Award in 2014 and 2015 from Computer Society of India. Suganthi Jeyaraj has completed her B.E in Computer Science and Engineering from Madurai Kamaraj University, Tamil Nadu, India in 1991 and M.E in Computer Science and Engineering from Bharathiar University, Tamil Nadu, India in 2004 and Ph.D in Anna University Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India in 2008. She is now working as a Principal, Hindusthan Institute of Technology Coimbatore. She has 15 years of teaching experience and 8 years of Industry experience. Her area of research includes Data Mining, Modeling and Simulation, Network Security, Digital Image Processing, Neural Networks, Soft Computing Techniques, Evolutionary strategies. She has published 3 books and 54 papers in international journals. She is a life member of Institution of Engineers, Indian Society for Technical Education, IEEE and Computer Society of India. She has produced seven doctorates and currently guiding 4 research scholars. She is an active consultant for research projects. She has received the Best Faculty award from Cognizant Technology Solutions and an Outstanding Faculty award from Venus International Foundation 2015.