The International Arab Journal of Information Technology (IAJIT)


AVL Based Settlement Algorithm and Reservation System for Smart Parking Systems in IoT-based

In Internet of Things (IOT)-based smart cities, negative reasons such as cost, energy and air pollution when searching for a parking space increase the importance of smart parking systems. In this study, a two-stage hybrid approach is proposed so that drivers can find a parking space that will consume the least time and energy. The first stage focuses on car parks having at least one free parking space located near the target address in an n diameter circumference, which are also open for business. An AVL tree-based hierarchical structure is created with driving time from the starting point to each car park and walking time from each car park to the destination, and it focuses on the most appropriate car park. In the second stage, the most suitable parking space is searched and made available, if found, in hierarchical parking monitoring system. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach, the results compared with hierarchical, hierarchical Binary Search Tree (BST) and non-hierarchical solutions in terms of energy and time performance are shown on a simulation. Proposed approach gave the best result with 99% energy efficiency. In addition, a dynamic cloud-based reservation system was proposed for the parking lot determined in the study.

[1] Al-Turjman F. and Malekloo A., “Smart Parking in Iot-Enabled Cities: A Survey,” Sustainable Cities and Society, vol. 49, pp. 101608, 2019.

[2] Atif Y., Ding J., and Jeusfeld M., “Internet of Things Approach to Cloud-based Smart Car Parking,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 98, pp. 193-198, 2016.

[3] Bachani M., Qureshi U., and Shaikh F., “Performance Analysis of Proximity and Light Sensors for Smart Parking,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 83, pp. 385-392, 2016.

[4] Bashir A. and Mir A., “Lightweight Secure MQTT for Mobility Enabled E-Health Internet of Things,” The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, vol. 18, no. 6, 773-781, 2021.

[5] Chatzigiannakis I., Vitaletti A., and Pyrgelis A., “A Privacy-Preserving Smart Parking System Using an Iot Elliptic Curve Based Security Platform,” Computer Communications, vol. 89- 90, pp. 165-177, 2016.

[6] Chinrungrueng J., Sunantachaikul U., and Triamlumlerd S., “Smart Parking: an Application of Optical Wireless Sensor Network,” in Proceeding of International Symposium on Applications and the Internet Workshops, Hiroshima, pp. 66, 2007.

[7] Dener M., Akcayol M., Toklu S., and Bay O., “Zamana Baǧli Dinamik En Kisa Yol Problemi Için Genetik Algoritma Tabanli Yeni Bir Algoritma,” Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 915-928, 2011.

[8] Geng Y. and Cassandras C., “A new “Smart Parking” System Infrastructure and Implementation,” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 54, pp. 1278-1287, 2012.

[9] Giuffrè T., Siniscalchi S., and Tesoriere G., “A Novel Architecture of Parking Management for Smart Cities,” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 53, pp. 16-28, 2012.

[10] Khanna A. and Anand R., “IoT based Smart Parking System,” in Proceeding of International Conference on Internet of Things and Applications (IOTA), Pune, pp. 266-270, 2016.

[11] Kizilkaya B., Caglar M., Al-Turjman F., and Ever E., “Binary Search Tree Based Hierarchical Placement Algorithm for IoT Based Smart Parking Applications,” Internet of Things, vol. 5, pp. 71-83, 2019.

[12] Lan K. and Shih W., “An Intelligent Driver Location System for Smart Parking,” Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 2443-2456, 2014.

[13] Lu R., Lin X., Zhu H., and Shen X., “SPARK: A New VANET-Based Smart Parking Scheme for Large Parking Lots,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Rio de Janeiro, pp. 1413-1421, 2009.

[14] Pala Z. and Inanç N., “Smart Parking Applications using RFID Technology,” in Proceedings of 1st Annual RFID Eurasia, Istanbul, pp. 1-3, 2007.

[15] Polycarpou E., Lambrinos L., and Protopapadakis E., “Smart Parking Solutions for Urban Areas,” in Proceedings of 14th International Symposium on A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, Madrid, pp. 1- 6, 2013.

[16] Safi Q., Luo S., Pan L., Liu W., Hussain R., and Bouk S., “SVPS: Cloud-Based Smart Vehicle Parking System Over Ubiquitous Vanets,” Computer Networks, vol. 138, pp. 18-30, 2018.

[17] Shin J. and Jun H., “A Study on Smart Parking Guidance Algorithm,” Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, vol. 44, pp. 299- 317, 2014.

[18] Shoup D., “Cruising for Parking,” Transp Policy, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 479-486, 2006.

[19] Thomas D. and Kovoor B., “A Genetic Algorithm Approach to Autonomous Smart Vehicle Parking System,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 125, pp. 68-76, 2018. Hikmet Canli was born in Ordu, Turkey in 1992. He received the B.S. (in 1st place) in Computer engineering from Duzce University, Duzce in 2015 and M.S. degree in computer engineering from Duzce University, Duzce, Turkey in 2017, and he is currently PhD. student in computer engineering from Duzce University, Duzce, Turkey. His research interest Internet of Things, Cyber Security, Computer Networking, Deep Learning, Machine Learning and Data Mining. His teaching areas cloud computing, information and network security and programming languages at undergraduate degree. Sinan Toklu received his B.Sc degree in computer engineering in 2004 from Eastern Mediterranean University, G. Magosa, TRNC and a M.Sc. degree in computer engineering in 2007 from Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey and his Ph.D. in electric-electronic education in 2013 from the Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. His research interests include wireless sensor networks, energy optimization, Internet of Things, Deep Learning and Smart City.