The International Arab Journal of Information Technology (IAJIT)


Live Virtual Machine Migration in Fog Computing: State of the Art

Fog computing is an emerging paradigm which extends the functionality of the cloud near to the end users. Its introduction helped in running different real-time applications where latency is a critical factor. This paradigm is motivated by the fast growth of Internet of Things (IoT) applications in different fields. By running Virtual Machines (VMs) on fog devices, different users will be able to offload their computational tasks to fog devices to get them done in a smooth, transparent, and faster manner. Nevertheless, the performance of real-time applications might suffer if no proper live virtual machine migration mechanism is adopted. Live VM migration aims to move the running VM from one physical fog node to another with minimal or zero downtime due to mobility issues. Many efforts have been made in this field to solve the challenges facing live VM migration in fog computing. However, there are remaining issues that require solutions and improvements. In this paper, the following presents the research outcomes: An extensive survey of existing literature on live VM migration mechanisms in fog computing. Also, a new novel classification approach for categorizing live VM migration mechanisms based on conventional and Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches to address live VM migration challenges is presented. Moreover, an identification of research gaps and in the existing literature and highlighting the areas where further investigation is required is done and finally a conclusion with a discussion of potential future research directions is drawn.

[1] Aazam M., Zeadally S., and Harras K., “Offloading in Fog Computing for IoT: Review, Enabling Technologies, and Research Opportunities,” Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 87, pp. 278-289, 2018.

[2] Abou-Tair D., Büchsenstein S., and Khalifeh A., “A Fog Computing-Based Framework for Privacy Preserving IoT Environments,” The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 306-315, 2020.

[3] Ahmed A., Arkian H., Battulga D., Fahs A., and Farhadi M., “Fog Computing Applications: Taxonomy and Requirements,” arXiv Preprint, arXiv:1907.11621, 2019.

[4] Ahmad K., Mohammad O., Atieh M., and Ramadan H., “Enhanced Performance and Faster Response using New IoT Litetechnique,” The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, vol. 16, no. 3A, pp. 548-556, 2019., %20No.%203A/18601.pdf

[5] Akintoye S. and Bagula A., “Improving Quality- of-Service in Cloud/Fog Computing through Efficient Resource Allocation,” Sensors, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1-29, 2019.

[6] Amendola D., Cordeschi N., and Baccarelli E., “Bandwidth Management VMs Live Migration in Wireless Fog Computing for 5G Networks,” in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Networking (Cloudnet), Pisa, pp. 21-26, 2016. DOI:10.1109/CloudNet.2016.36

[7] Anawar M., Wang S., Zia M., Jadoon A., Akram U., and Raza S., “Fog Computing: An Overview of Big IoT Data Analytics,” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 2018, pp. 1-23, 2018.

[8] Atlam H., Walters R., and Wills G., “Fog Computing and the Internet of Things: A Review,” Big Data and Cognitive Computing, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1-18, 2018.

[9] Baccarelli E., Scarpiniti M., and Momenzadeh A., “Fog-Supported Delay-Constrained Energy- Saving Live Migration of VMs over MultiPath TCP/IP 5G Connections,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 42327-42354, 2018. DOI:10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2860249

[10] Bao W., Yuan D., Yang Z., Wang S., Li W., Zhou B., and Zomaya A., “Follow Me Fog: Toward Seamless Handover Timing Schemes in a Fog Live Virtual Machine Migration in Fog Computing: State of the Art 993 Computing Environment,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 72-78, 2017. DOI:10.1109/MCOM.2017.1700363

[11] Besharati R. and Rezvani M., “A Prototype Auction-based Mechanism for Computation Offloading in Fog-Cloud Environments,” in Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Knowledge Based Engineering and Innovation, Tehran, pp. 542-547, 2019. DOI:10.1109/KBEI.2019.8734918

[12] Bi Y., Han G., Lin C., Deng Q., Guo L., and Li F., “Mobility Support for Fog Computing: An SDN Approach,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 53-59, 2018. DOI:10.1109/MCOM.2018.1700908

[13] Bittencourt L., Immich R., Sakellariou R., Fonseca N., and Madeira E., “The Internet of Things, Fog and Cloud Continuum: Integration and Challenges,” Internet of Things, vol. 2-3, pp. 134-155, 2018.

[14] Bittencourt L., Lopes M., Petri I., and Rana O., “Towards Virtual Machine Migration in Fog Computing,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud and Internet Computing, Krakow, pp. 1-8, 2015, DOI:10.1109/3PGCIC.2015.85

[15] Botta A., De Donato W., Persico V., and Pescapé A., “Integration of Cloud Computing and Internet of Things: A Survey,” Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 56, pp. 684-700, 2016.

[16] Chaufournier L., Sharma P., Le F., Nahum E., Shenoy P., and Towsley D., “Fast Transparent Virtual Machine Migration in Distributed Edge Clouds,” in Proceedings of the 2nd ACM/IEEE Symposium on Edge Computing, Wilmington, pp. 1-13, 2017.

[17] Choudhary A., Govil M., Singh G., Awasthi L., Pilli E., and Kapil D., “A Critical Survey of Live Virtual Machine Migration Techniques,” Journal of Cloud Computing: Advances, Systems and Applications, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-41, 2017. DOI:10.1186/s13677-017-0092-1

[18] Damania K., Holmukhe S., Singhai V., and Bhavathankar P., “An Overview of VM Live Migration Strategies and Technologies,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology, Coimbatore, pp. 1185-1190, 2018. DOI:10.1109/ICECA.2018.8474910

[19] Doan T., Nguyen G., Salah H., Pandi S., Jarschel M., Pries R., and Fitzek F., “Containers vs Virtual Machines: Choosing the Right Virtualization Technology for Mobile Edge Cloud,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 2nd 5G World Forum, Dresden, pp. 46-52, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/5GWF.2019.8911715

[20] Duan J., Ren K., Zhou W., Xu Y., and Dou W., “A Service Migration Method for Resource Competition in Mobile Edge Computing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference, Austin, pp. 1-8, 2021. DOI:10.1109/IPCCC51483.2021.9679421

[21] Genez T., Tso F., and Cui L., “Latency-Aware Joint Virtual Machine and Policy Consolidation for Mobile Edge Computing,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, Las Vegas, pp. 1-6, 2018. DOI:10.1109/CCNC.2018.8319204

[22] Giri A., Dutta S., Neogy S., Dahal K., and Pervez Z., “Internet of things (IoT): A Survey on Architecture, Enabling Technologies, Applications and Challenges,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Internet of Things and Machine Learning IML'17, Liverpool, pp. 1-12, 2017.

[23] Goncalves D., Velasquez K., Curado M., Bittencourt L., and Madeira E., “Proactive Virtual Machine Migration in Fog Environments,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications, Natal, pp. 00742-00745, 2018. DOI:10.1109/ISCC.2018.8538655

[24] Govindaraj K. and Artemenko A., “Container Live Migration for Latency Critical Industrial Applications on Edge Computing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 23rd International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, Turin, pp. 83-90, 2018. DOI10.1109/ETFA.2018.8502659

[25] Habibi P., Farhoudi M., Kazemian S., Khorsandi S., and Leon-Garcia A., “Fog Computing: A Comprehensive Architectural Survey,” IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 69105-69133, 2020. DOI:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2983253

[26] Haouari F., Faraj R., and AlJa’am J., “Fog Computing Potentials, Applications, and Challenges,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer and Applications, Beirut, pp. 399-406, 2018. DOI:10.1109/COMAPP.2018.8460182

[27] Hu P., Dhelim S., Ning H., and Qiu T., “Survey on Fog Computing: Architecture, Key Technologies, Applications and Open Issues,” Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 98, pp. 27-42, 2017.

[28] Jiang Y., Huang Z., and Tsang D., “Challenges and Solutions in Fog Computing Orchestration,” IEEE Network, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 122-129, 2018. DOI:10.1109/MNET.2017.1700271

[29] Kapil D., Pilli E., and Joshi R., “Live Virtual 994 The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 20, No. 6, November 2023 Machine Migration Techniques: Survey and Research Challenges,” in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Advance Computing Conference, Ghaziabad, pp. 963-969, 2013. DOI:10.1109/IAdCC.2013.6514357

[30] Kaur A., Kumar S., Gupta D., Hamid Y., Hamdi M., and KsibiA., “Algorithmic Approach to Virtual Machine Migration in Cloud Computing with Updated SESA Algorithm,” Sensors, vol. 23, no. 13, pp. 1-18, 2023.

[31] Li S., Tryfonas T., and Li H., “The Internet of Things: A Security Point of View,” Internet Research, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 337-359, 2016. DOI: 10.1108/IntR-07-2014-0173

[32] Machen A., Wang S., Leung K., Ko B., and Salonidis T., “Live Service Migration in Mobile Edge Clouds,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 140-147, 2018. DOI:10.1109/MWC.2017.1700011

[33] Mann Z., “Notions of Architecture in Fog Computing,” Computing, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 51- 73, 2021. 00848-z

[34] Mouradian C., Naboulsi D., Yangui S., Glitho R., Morrow M., and Polakos P., “A Comprehensive Survey on Fog Computing : State-of-the-Art and Research Challenges,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 416-464, 2018. DOI: 10.1109/COMST.2017.2771153

[35] Mukherjee M., Shu L., and Wang D., “Survey of Fog Computing: Fundamental, Network Applications, and Research Challenges,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1826-1857, 2018. DOI:10.1109/COMST.2018.2814571

[36] Naha R., Garg S., Georgakopoulos D., Jayaraman P., Gao L., Xiang Y., and Ranjan R., “Fog Computing: Survey of Trends, Architectures, Requirements, and Research Directions,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 47980-48009, 2018. DOI:10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2866491

[37] Noura M., Atiquzzaman M., and Gaedke M., “Interoperability in Internet of Things : Taxonomies and Open Challenges Interoperability in Internet of Things : Taxonomies and Open Challenges,” Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 24, pp. 796-809, 2019.

[38] Perera C., Qin Y., Estrella J., Reiff-Marganiec S., and Vasilakos A., “Fog Computing for Sustainable Smart Cities: A Survey,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 50, no. 32, pp. 1-43, 2017.

[39] Perera C., Zaslavsky A., Christen P., and Georgakopoulos D., “Context Aware Computing for the Internet of Things: A Survey,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 414-454, 2014. DOI:10.1109/SURV.2013.042313.00197

[40] Portnoy M., Virtualisation Essesntials, John Wiley and Sons, 2012. 19/

[41] Puliafito C., Vallati C., Mingozzi E., Merlino G., Longo F., and Puliafito A., “Container Migration in the Fog: A Performance Evaluation,” Sensors, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1-22, 2019,

[42] Roig P., Alcaraz S., Gilly K., and Juiz C., “Modelling VM Migration in a Fog Computing Environment,” Elektronika Ir Elektrotechnika, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 75-81, 2019.

[43] Saurez E., Hong K., Lillethun D., Ramachandran U., and Ottenwälder B., “Incremental Deployment and Migration of Geo-Distributed Situation Awareness Applications in the Fog,” in Proceedings of the 10th ACM International Conference on Distributed and Event-based Systems, California, pp. 258-269, 2016.

[44] Sheng J., Hu J., Teng X., Wang B., and Pan X., “Computation Offloading Strategy in Mobile Edge Computing,” Information, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1-20, 2019.

[45] Singh G. and Gupta P., “A Review on Migration Techniques and Challenges in Live Virtual Machine Migration,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions), Noida, pp. 542-546, 2016. DOI: 10.1109/ICRITO.2016.7785015

[46] Tang Z., Zhou X., Zhang F., Jia W., and Zhao W., “Migration Modeling and Learning Algorithms for Containers in Fog Computing,” IEEE Transactions on Services Computing, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 712-725, 2019. DOI:10.1109/TSC.2018.2827070

[47] Tay Y., Gaurav K., and Karkun P., “A Performance Comparison of Containers and Virtual Machines in Workload Migration Context,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 37th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Atlanta, pp. 61-66, 2017. DOI:10.1109/ICDCSW.2017.44

[48] Teka F., Lung C., and Ajila S., “Nearby Live Virtual Machine Migration Using Cloudlets and Multipath TCP,” Journal of Cloud Computing, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-21, 2016.

[49] Teka F., Lung C., and Ajila S., “Seamless Live Virtual Machine Migration with Cloudlets and Multipath TCP,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 39th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference, Taichung, pp. 607-616, 2015. Live Virtual Machine Migration in Fog Computing: State of the Art 995 DOI: 10.1109/COMPSAC.2015.31

[50] Wang S., Xu J., Zhang N., and Liu Y., “A Survey on Service Migration in Mobile Edge Computing,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 23511- 23528, 2018. DOI:10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2828102

[51] Xu X., Liu Q., Qi L., Yuan Y., Dou W., and Liu A., “A Heuristic Virtual Machine Scheduling Method for Load Balancing in Fog-Cloud Computing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 4th International Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud, IEEE International Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, and IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data and Security, Omaha, pp. 83-88, 2018. DOI:10.1109/BDS/HPSC/IDS18.2018.00030

[52] Yi S., Hao Z., Qin Z., and Li Q., “Fog Computing: Platform and Applications,” in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Workshop on Hot Topics in Web Systems and Technologies, Washington (DC), pp. 73-78, 2016. DOI: 10.1109/HotWeb.2015.22

[53] Yousefpour A., Fung C., Nguyen T., Kadiyala K., Jalali F., Charlotte U., and Jue J., “All One Needs to Know about Fog Computing and Related Edge Computing Paradigms : A Complete Survey,” Journal of Systems Architecture, vol. 98, pp. 289- 330, 2019.

[54] Zhang C. and Zheng Z., “Task Migration for Mobile Edge Computing Using Deep Reinforcement Learning,” Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 96, pp. 111-118, 2019.

[55] Zhang F., “Challenges and New Solutions for Live Migration of Virtual Machines in Cloud Computing Environments,” Doctoral Theses, Georg-August University, 2018. file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/dissertation- submission.pdf

[56] Zhang F., Liu G., Fu X., and Yahyapour R., “A Survey on Virtual Machine Migration: Challenges, Techniques, and Open Issues,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 1206-1243, 2018. DOI:10.1109/COMST.2018.2794881

[57] Zhou Z., Liao H., Zhao X., Ai B., and Guizani M., “Reliable Task Offloading for Vehicular Fog Computing under Information Asymmetry and Information Uncertainty,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 8322- 8335, 2019. DOI:10.1109/TVT.2019.2926732.